Employees set up photovoltaic photo voltaic panels at a photo voltaic park in Charanka, Gujarat. Picture: Reuters/File
- India’s up to date nationally decided contribution (NDC) to local weather motion units to attain 50% cumulative put in capability from non-fossil fuel-based power assets by 2030.
- Since renewable power sources are inherently intermittent and variable in nature, the era of electrical energy from them just isn’t in sync with the demand cycles.
- A technological answer to intermittency is the bodily storage of power, and thus, storage applied sciences are essential to a transition to RE heavy power methods.
The Union Cupboard has authorized India’s up to date nationally decided contribution (NDC) to local weather motion, which units a goal to attain 50% cumulative put in capability from non-fossil fuel-based power assets by 2030. A lot of this capability goal is prone to be fulfilled by means of renewable power (RE) sources like photo voltaic and wind power.
RE sources are inherently intermittent and variable in nature. Due to this fact, RE era just isn’t in sync with the demand cycles. A technological answer to intermittency is the bodily storage of power, and thus, storage applied sciences are essential to a transition to RE heavy power methods. Till bodily storage choices are cost-competitive and scalable, banking of power is a short-term different to advertise RE era.
Prior to now few years, a number of states have positioned completely different sorts of restrictions on banking of RE, jeopardising the interim answer to its intermittency. In June 2022, the Union authorities notified the Electrical energy (Selling Renewable Vitality By Inexperienced Vitality Open Entry) Guidelines, 2022 [RE OA Rules] to make sure a constant method to power banking for RE open entry shoppers. Whereas the RE OA Guidelines recognise the significance of banking, it fails to offer a coherent framework.
Overview of power banking in India
Vitality banking is an change of electrical energy for electrical energy. It’s an association the place surplus energy generated in a specific interval is fed into the grid. This surplus power often called banked power is then equipped again during times of low RE era.
Banking has been a vital complement to open entry (OA) buy of RE. The discoms present this service upon fee of ‘banking fees’ by the shoppers which are in sort (a share of banked power) or in money (Rs/KWh). The banking association varies throughout states as it’s regulated by the State Electrical energy Regulatory Commissions (SERCs). It’s a promising different to storage for reaching increased penetration of RE, and has been helpful to business and industrial (C&I) shoppers selecting RE by means of OA.
Nevertheless, there was a development of accelerating restrictions on banking. States have both withdrawn their banking facility utterly or imposed varied circumstances that restrict the length and quantum of banking.
With increased penetration of RE, which now accounts for a big share of electrical energy era in a couple of states, discoms have been in search of discontinuation of pro-RE coverage measures, together with the banking facility. Banking has been a problem for discoms, notably due to the prices incurred to produce again during times of excessive demand. Subsequently, assorted restrictions have been introduced in on the state stage. RE builders have challenged these restrictions earlier than SERCs and the circumstances are at varied levels of pendency earlier than the Appellate Tribunal for Electrical energy (APTEL) and the Supreme Court docket of India.
Thus far, APTEL has resisted these makes an attempt to dilute banking provisions. In January 2021, APTEL thought of Tamil Nadu ERC’s determination to utterly withdraw the banking facility to be “extraordinarily radical”. It held that preferential remedy of RE is a acknowledged coverage of the Authorities of India in the direction of its commitments to local weather motion underneath the Paris Settlement, and SERCs should contemplate the identical whereas taking choices.
In March 2019, reviewing a petition towards Karnataka ERC’s order to scale back the banking interval to 6 months, APTEL held that banking is not only a business transaction; it’s bodily help for RE era. In Karnataka, the months of Might to September are intervals of peak wind era and if banking just isn’t allowed on an annual foundation, the excess power generated won’t be obtainable for consumption (in accounting phrases) within the peak demand season (January to March). Whereas diminished banking interval (one-six months) fails to consider seasonal variability in wind energy era, photo voltaic power with variation over the course of a day just isn’t affected.
Why discoms are proof against power banking
Discoms’ resistance to banking will be defined by the associated fee issue. There could be a vital distinction between the variable value of energy on the time of injection and drawl of the banked power. Wind era is highest within the monsoon season, when agricultural and cooling calls for are decrease. Discoms again down low-cost thermal era to soak up surplus wind power, a part of which is banked. Nevertheless, the banked power is usually claimed throughout peak summer time months, when the discoms must run costly vegetation or procure costly energy from the spot market to produce again the banked power. The discoms contend that this unit-to-unit adjustment has impacted their funds.
The discoms additionally allege that RE builders are making the most of the banking facility by putting in and in search of permission for increased capability than their acknowledged drawl requirement.
This was demonstrated in current circumstances earlier than APTEL the place banking was used as a purpose to impose restrictions on OA past contracted demand.
The foundation of the issue lies in the truth that the price of banking services has not been ascertained or absolutely understood. Thus far, discoms haven’t been in a position to make a case for the monetary hardship confronted by them since they’ve failed to offer sufficient knowledge and evaluation on why these restrictions on banking are essential. APTEL has criticised SERCs for failing to analyse the influence of banking which has led to the present state of advert hoc rules. Since APTEL can not independently set up if discoms are struggling monetary losses attributable to banking or not, it has advised that CEA conduct these research and advise the central authorities to formulate a uniform coverage.
The jury remains to be out on the price of banking. These may very well be prohibitive, or may very well be cheaper in comparison with different options. A examine (Jain & Jain, 2020) claims that banking service supplied by discoms to an open-access buyer shopping for photo voltaic power from an unbiased energy producer can enhance the price of photo voltaic electrical energy by 20-30%, which remains to be cheaper than storage.
Regulatory framework on banking is insufficient, unclear and unsure
The RE OA Guidelines recognises the significance of banking and makes provisions to guarantee banking facility to RE open entry shoppers:
“Banking shall be permitted at the very least on a month-to-month foundation on fee of fees”
“The permitted quantum of banked power by the Inexperienced Vitality Open Entry shoppers shall be at the very least thirty % of the whole month-to-month consumption”
The primary provision implies that SERCs can notify an extended banking length, which might permit consideration of state-specific context. Nevertheless, within the rationalization to the clause, the RE OA Guidelines make clear that “the credit score for banked power shall not be permitted to be carried ahead to subsequent months and the credit score of power banked through the month shall be adjusted throughout the identical month.” This appears to be inconsistent with the primary provision.
If the reason prevails and banking length is restricted to a month, seasonally productive wind power will probably be adversely affected. It’s attainable that RE era value might go as much as consider the price of the excess power that can’t be recovered. It could additionally result in downsizing of initiatives to keep away from surplus era, and thus, have an effect on the tempo of RE capability addition. Monetisation of surplus RE in day-ahead and spot market is one other avenue for the builders, as seen within the round the clock RE contract. However the way it unfolds in observe stays to be seen.
The frequent adjustments to banking provisions and ensuing litigation result in disruption and uncertainty within the regulatory framework. There have been circumstances the place restrictions have been imposed retrospectively on present RE builders, and APTEL overruled such orders since SERCs tried to unilaterally amend present contracts. These builders have made substantial investments and entered into business agreements based mostly on the prevailing regulatory framework, and shifting sands will result in such initiatives changing into unviable.
Worth discovery is important to apportion the prices, obligations and liabilities amongst stakeholders. It’s untimely to take coverage choices based mostly on inadequate and imperfect knowledge. APTEL had advised that CEA and SERCs conduct in-depth monetary and scientific research to find out the price of banking. Karnataka ERC has lately commissioned a examine for this objective. The RE OA Guidelines require the Discussion board of Regulators to organize a typical methodology for the calculation of banking fees for SERCs.
Open entry based mostly on renewables could be unviable with no pragmatic banking framework. Creating such a framework requires analysis that seeks to analyse and handle the considerations raised by each RE builders in addition to distribution licensees. It’s essential to sign regulatory certainty for RE promotion and foster power transition within the medium time period. As a consequence of the RE OA Guidelines, it’s now as much as the states and SERCs to determine find out how to interpret and incorporate banking provisions of their rules.
This text was initially revealed on the Centre for Coverage Analysis’s weblog Environmentality.